Effective dose of radiation
P. 1





Narrative Review





A Review and Critical Analysis of the “Efective Dose 


of Radiation” Concept






Alexey Yablokov, DScAbstract. Radioactive pollution and its efects are some of the least visible but most dangerous 

Koltzov Institute of man-made changes of the biosphere. hough above-ground nuclear weapons testing has been 
Developmental Biology, banned since the 1960s, mankind has continued to ind new ways to exploit radionuclides. To protect 

Russian Academy of Science people from anthropogenic radiation contamination, it is necessary to determine an acceptable
ul. Vavilova 26level and range of exposure. Today, the system of radiation safety endorsed by the U.N. and other 

Moscow 119334multi-national groups is based on the concept of an efective dose—the measure of cancer risk to
Russiaan entire organism from radiation exposure to its various parts. his review posits there are serious 

problems with both the concept of an efective dose and the methodology behind its calculation, and 
Ph +7-495-952-80-19; that a new framework is needed. In order to study the issues and drawbacks of the oicial concept of 

+7-985-769-82-49radiation safety, and to assist readers in understanding the basis of his argument, the author sums up 
Email: yablokov@voxnet.ruand critiques the current system’s main basic postulates and conclusions.




Introduction 
his is part of the irst half of the ................................................................................................................................. 14 
monograph: “A Critical Analysis of
Methodological Background of the Dose Concept ................................................................. 14 
the Concept of an ‘Efective Dose’ of A Critical Look 
............................................................................................................................. 15
Radiation”. he monograph in its entirety 
Postulate 1: he impact of each radionuclide on a person is constant in time and space ..... 15 
features two review papers from prominent Postulate 2: he level of external irradiation can be determined by calculating

Russian scientist Alexey Yablokov looking the amount of time a person is present in an ionized environment ..................................... 15 
critically at the current standards of Postulate 3: he level of internal irradiation can be determined by calculating

human radiation safety, accompaniedthe amount of radionuclides that enters the human body .................................................... 16 
Postulate 4: he biological efectiveness of X-ray and all gamma and
by two editorials presenting a point/ 
beta emitters are equal ........................................................................................................... 16 
counterpoint perspective on Professor Postulate 5: In terms of relative radiosensitivity, human organs and tissues can
Yablokov’s work. he second paper and 
be ranked in a weighted order ................................................................................................ 16 
editorial will be published in the next issue, 
Postulate 6: To calculate an individual efective dose it is necessary to sum up internal
due later this year. Further information and external irradiation doses from all sources of radiation .............................................. 17 

about Professor Yablokov can be found in Postulate 7: A healthy 20 year-old white male is an appropriate model for the
the letter from the publisher, also in this impact of radiation on the average human being ................................................................ 19 

issue of the Journal of Health & Pollution.Postulate 8: he higher the radiation dose, the greater the biological efect ........................ 19 
Summaryof “ACriticalLook”.................................................................................................... 20

Some Facts About Low-dosage Exposure .............................................................................. 20

Efects of high levels of naturally-occurring radiation ............................................................ 20 
Competing Interests. he author declares 
1. Cosmic radiation ............................................................................................................ 21 
no competing inancial interests. 2. Elevated radiation levels from the Earth’s crust .................................................................. 21
Keywords. cancer, Chernobyl, Fukushima, 
Efects of low-level radiation exposure from anthropogenic sources .................................... 22 
ICPR, Life Span Study, low dose,1. he tale of two “secret” cities .................................................................................................. 22 
nuclear testing, radiation, radionuclides, 
2. Chernobyl ........................................................................................................................... 23 
radiosensitivity, UNSCEAR
J Health Pollution 5:13-27 (2013)3. Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant ....................................................................................... 24 
4. Atomic bomb test fallout ..................................................................................................... 24

Efects of low-level radiation on genetic systems ..................................................................... 24 
Data is not always reliable, or the Healthy Survivor efect ........................................................ 25

Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 25 



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YablokovJournal of Health & Pollution Vol. 3, No. 5 — June 2013




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